This essay clarified the context of personal health care (yojo) in Japan during the period between the late 16^<th> century and the early 17^<th> century, focusing on the value of human life. In those days, Japanese people had to live through a warlike period and were continually threatened with famine. Some missionaries and traders from Europe described that there were frequent homicides just to test new swords and deserting children. They were astonished that people in Japan killed people for a trifling reason. Europeans were also disappointed that women readily abandoned or killed their babies, or had an abortion. Moreover, when people who had no relatives or family died, his or her body was frequently abandoned on the roadside. They did not have respect for human life. Only army generals except for medical practitioners at that time had knowledge of personal health care (yojo) in order to maintain being healthy. The situation changed significantly in the 18^<th> century when personal health care (yojo) whose aims were stable daily life and longevity was one of the important practical morals.