The initial research in Japan in educational pathology and treatment pedagogy came from translation of European and American research and the direction of psychiatrists, principally Dr. Shuzo Kure. These translated materials were gradually put into practice based on the theory they contained. Because of their grounding in medical psychiatry, they developed into two distinct areas: educational pathology and treatment pedagogy. The former was known as "special child research" and had its original the study of mental disease. The latter applied such disease treatment in society.